Resisting modernisation due to resentment? Evidence from British India.

Religion of final rulers (1757-1857)


Using novel data set combining the religion of the deposed ruler, with the literacy outcomes of Hindus and Muslims in Indian census data for the years 1881, 1911 and 1921, we show that religious group can resist modern education due to foreign occupation? Our analysis shows that Muslim literacy is lower (2%) in districts where the ruler deposed by British was Muslim. Hindu literacy is lower (1.5%) in regions where the deposed ruler was Hindu.